5. Policy Implementation
After the authorization of a policy it has to be put into effect by the administrators or executives. The implementation inspires little interest among the general public, unless it fails. That’s why the implementation process should be accompanied by citizen participation to guarantee a transparent, cooperative and successful one. The best policy paper is worthless without a well executed implementation.
The policy implementation is the process whereby a written policy is turned into actions which have a positive or negative influence on peoples´ lives. The policy inputs include all actions to be taken for the implementation of a policy. For example, the inputs for an economic policy could encompass the provision of specific schools, apprentice trainings, universities etc. After implementation, especially after policy enforcement, the policy outputs, which are goods and services produced by a policy, could be evidenced by the number of educated and trained people. This has to be evaluated in the evaluation phase. Policy outcomes represents the knowledge and skills required by the trained and educated people which could result, accompanied by the increased provision of working places, in a prospering economic development.
5.1 Implementation tasks
The implementation tasks comprise all activities required to implement the policy. These tasks include the creation or provision of organisations and the establishment of regulatory and legal frameworks to support the actions. Hence implementation has many facets and therefore cannot be described extensively. It includes tasks such as budgetary measures, public relation actions, organisation changes and staff recruiting. Budgetary measures in general are required for the funding of the policy strategy. Organisational changes might be required to carry out all the envisaged activities and additional staff might be required too to overtake the responsibilities.
5.2 Policy enforcement
An important aspect is the selection of the policy enforcement instrument. Policies can be implemented in a number of ways, with means by various policy tools or policy instruments. A policy statement indicates what should be received including the content of the policy, the organisation and the persons responsible for carrying out the activities. The tool or instrument is the method by which the desired effect is pursued.
The most important policy instruments are specified below.
- Regulations, such as taxes and fees, subsidies, tariffs and fines.
- Communication by the policy actors during speeches, conferences, debates and advisory committees.
- Funding via programs, grants, subsidies, transfers and market-based incentives.
- Public Ownership in form of corporations and mixed ownership.
People who are responsible for the policy enforcement have to be authorized. In general these are civil servants and administrate officials who establish and manage the change process.